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EPA Denies Anti-Fluoride Petition

The EPA rejected a petition in August 2013 seeking to ban a form of fluoride that is commonly used to fluoridate drinking water, noting that petitioners lacked “sufficient facts” to support their case.

Tennessee Law Requires Public Notice

A Tennessee law enacted in 2012 requires local water systems to provide a minimum period of public notification before ceasing or starting fluoridation.

Highlights in North American Litigation During the Twentieth Century on Artificial Fluoridation of Public Water Supplies

Authors: 
Graham JR, Morin PJ
Article Title: 
Highlights in North American Litigation During the Twentieth Century on Artificial Fluoridation of Public Water Supplies
Year: 
1999
Volume: 
14
Number: 
2
Pages: 
195-248
Commentary: 

The science is inaccurate and based on non-peer reviewed science that cannot be replicated, in addition there seems to be a lack of knowledge and understanding regarding the fluoridation. If you enjoy reading articles adamantly opposing fluoridation, complete with conspiracy theories and a strong negative bias toward fluoridation this is it. In my opinion the article would be more credible had it been less adversarial.

Looking Back at Fluoridation, Risk: Issues in Health and Safety

Authors: 
Mazure A
Article Title: 
Looking Back at Fluoridation, Risk: Issues in Health and Safety
Year: 
2001
Commentary: 

As the title states this article looks at the history of fluoridation from a broad policy level discussing health affects such as cancer and then moves into current issues.

Fluoridation at Fifty: What have we learned

Authors: 
Pratt E, Rawson RD, Rubin M
Article Title: 
Fluoridation at Fifty: What have we learned
Year: 
2002
Volume: 
30
Number: 
3 supplemental
Pages: 
117-121
Abstract: 

The question posed by the title of this article encompasses more than just the law and science applied to fluoridation. A review of the history and present status of fluoridation policy development and implementation makes it quickly apparent that the lessons learned are applicable to a wide range of public health policy and that the public health community needs to be very concerned about the status and trends of legal precedent. Indeed, in the context of recent U. S. Supreme Court decisions, the need for a comprehensive and coordinated effort to educate the public, legislators, and jurists about the safety and efficacy of community water fluoridation is clear. Two fundamental issues are at the core of this article: (1) the use of science in formulating and defending public health policy, and (2) how to connect scientific fact with the legal process in connection with the actual circumstances regarding a community's health status. The opening section of this article presents an analysis of fluoridation's great success in preventing dental caries over the past 50 years, along with a discussion of current data scientifically demonstrating that fluoride is safe when properly utilized. A second section provides an overview of one state's legislative experience in mandating fluoridation and the political challenges encountered. A final section discusses the legal issues associated with fluoridation, including the bases of legal challenges to public laws mandating it.

Commentary: 

This article provides an overview of the benefits of fluoridated water in preventing dental caries followed by one state's political challenges in mandating water fluoridation and the legal challenges associated with community water fluoridation.

How do we Translate Science into Public Health Policy and Law?

Authors: 
Fielding JE, Marks JS, Myers BW, et al.
Article Title: 
How do we Translate Science into Public Health Policy and Law?
Year: 
2002
Volume: 
30
Number: 
3 supplemental
Pages: 
22-32
Abstract: 

Scientific knowledge concerning effective preventive measures to preserve and protect the health of the public continues to grow exponentially. Methods for assessing the impact of population-based interventions such as policies and laws have also greatly increased in the past decade, including systematic approaches that allow general findings to be drawn from various studies, especially those developed as part of the Guide to Community Preventive Services (Community Guide). However, the translation of the collected scientific evidence gathered to date has been spotty and problematic. Success stories do exist, including community water fluoridation, a significant factor in improvements in reduction of tooth decay over the past 50 years. Even for interventions with a strong science base, such as community water fluoridation, significant barriers to implementation of effective strategies discovered through research remain. Barriers include public misunderstanding of health issues and proposed solutions such as fluoridation; lack of engagement on the part of the media in communicating known effective strategies; and reluctance on the part of policymakers to champion approaches that concern but may not be advocated by their constituencies. The increasing burden of chronic disease places public policymakers into non-traditional roles, such as advocating behavior change as a preventive measure. Science is a critical tool to help legislators and policymakers "connect the dots" between public policies. For example, the elimination or degrading of physical education programs in schools is an important factor in addressing the national epidemic of childhood overweight and obesity in addition to the increase in rates of Type II diabetes among children. This article provides an overview of the past, present, and future associated with translating science into public health policy and law, including a review of tools and strategies to address existing and expanding public health challenges. The article also provides and discusses examples of translating and implementing science-based solutions to address public health problems effectively.

Commentary: 

This article discusses challenges of public health disease preventing initiatives with a strong science base such as Water fluoridation and the barriers in implementing the preventive measures. “Barriers include public misunderstanding of health issues and proposed solutions. . . lack of engagement on the part of the media in communicating know effective strategies; and reluctance on the part of policymakers to champion approaches that might concern but may not be advocated by their constituencies.” Id. at 22.

Municipal Authority: Police Power Controls – Fluoridation

Authors: 
Bourlon EG
Article Title: 
Municipal Authority: Police Power Controls – Fluoridation
Year: 
2003
Volume: 
32
Pages: 
661-663
Commentary: 

This is a discussion of Quiles v. City of Boynton Beach, 802 So.2d 397 (Fla.Dist.App. 4th 2001). The Boynton Beach City Commission voted to fluoridate the public water supplies. Quiles brought a claim for injunctive relief to stop the fluoridation based on a compulsory medication claim.

Fluoridation Litigation, Then and Now

Authors: 
Giedwoyn A
Article Title: 
Fluoridation Litigation, Then and Now
Year: 
2005
Volume: 
Aug./Sep
Commentary: 

The article begins by discussing mandatory water fluoridation in Oregon and the fluoride contamination from aluminum plants. The article has slanted bias against fluoridation and quotes comments only relating to unsound science. The author does not cite to any credible sources and warns that if Oregon were to move toward fluoridating through legislation, that there would be numerous law suits to follow.

Court Report State Court California

Authors: 
Talbot TM
Article Title: 
Court Report State Court California
Year: 
2005
Volume: 
Fall
Commentary: 

Discussed how law can be used to promote public health including the Coshow 132 Cal. App. 4th 687 (2005) appellate court holding

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Recent State and Local Action

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Missouri :: Ordinance :: Sullivan

Abstract: 

Sullivan's City Council passed Ordiance 3667, eliminating the city's fluoridation requirement, repealing Sullivan Code 705.050. 

See also James B. Bartle, Fluoridation Repealed In Sullivan, Three Ordinances Approved, Sullivan Independent News (June 2, 2015), available at http://www.mysullivannews.com/2015/06/fluoridation-repealed-in-sullivan-....

 

Last updated: June 19, 2015.  

 

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Michigan :: Ordinance :: West Branch

Abstract: 

On June 1, 2015, West Branch City Counsel voted 6-1 to increase water fluoridation levels to the state and Federal recommended 0.7 ppm. See Matt Varcak, "City votes to increase level of fluoride in the water," Ogemaw County Herald (June 1, 2015), available at http://www.ogemawherald.com/stories/City-votes-to-increase-level-of-fluoride-in-water,101683.   

 

Last updated June 19, 2015.

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New York :: Administrative Code

Abstract: 

The additions to the New York Public Health Code prevent jurisdictions already participating in water fluoridation from ceasing their program without first providing a notice to the public and a ninety-day comment period.

Citation: 

NY PUB HEALTH § 1100–a

Date Adopted: 
Mon, 04/13/2015
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West Virginia :: Local Authority :: Clarksburg

Abstract: 

Clarksburg, WV has voted to take bids for all of its water treatment chemicals save for fluoride, essentially ending water fluoridation in the jurisdiction.  See http://wvmetronews.com/2015/05/11/clarksburg-water-board-votes-to-end-practice-of-fluoridation/.  The Water Board has decided to continue to discuss the issue even after not voting to fund any fluoride contracts. See http://www.theet.com/news/local/water-board-to-resume-discussions-about-fluoride/article_4000700a-30b8-5d34-a8db-bb29463c472c.html

Last Updated: May 19, 2015

Michigan :: Ogemaw County :: Consideration

Abstract: 

The West Branch (Michigan) city counsel will consider whether to add fluoride to its water supply in the near future.  See http://ogemawherald.com/stories/City-to-consider-adding-additional-fluor....

 

Last updated: April 10, 2015.  

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