Welcome to FLUID

Featured News

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EPA Denies Anti-Fluoride Petition

The EPA rejected a petition in August 2013 seeking to ban a form of fluoride that is commonly used to fluoridate drinking water, noting that petitioners lacked “sufficient facts” to support their case.

Tennessee Law Requires Public Notice

A Tennessee law enacted in 2012 requires local water systems to provide a minimum period of public notification before ceasing or starting fluoridation.

What is FLUID? The Fluoride Legislative User Information Database is a comprehensive database containing legal decisions by U.S. courts and current information on federal, state and local policies regarding community water fluoridation.

Why was FLUID created? FLUID was created to be an up-to-date, user-friendly tool to answer questions about the legal and policy status of community water fluoridation in all U.S. states and territories. The goal of FLUID is to enable users to access accurate information and to be a resource that allows them to compare their current or proposed policies with others from across the country.

How was FLUID created? FLUID was initiated and is funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The database was completed by and is maintained through a collaboration between the Children’s Dental Health Project and the Health Law and Policy Program on Law and Government at the American University’s Washington College of Law. Project staff research pertinent case law via Westlaw and other online legal search engines, and state and local policies are cataloged via various individual state policy databases and Municode.

How do I use FLUID? FLUID is broken down into four sections that can be navigated to and from the menu links at the top of the web site.

  • Search: From here, users can search FLUID with any combination of keyword, content type, and case topic type. Multiple states and content types can be selected and unselected by control/command-clicking the available menu items. The case topic menu will automatically generate suggested search categories back on the user’s keyboard input to assist in optimizing searches. Users unfamiliar with fluoridation case law are encouraged to use the case topics option to get an overview of the various issues, while experienced users should utilize the key word option for more inclusive results.
  • Case Law: This page allows the user to limit their search to legal opinions from state and federal courts. Each case law also contains links to original source materials. This section is searchable by menus organized by state, case topic, and key word. Multiple items can be selected and unselected in each menu by control/command-click. Users unfamiliar with fluoridation case law are encouraged to use the case topics option to get an overview of the various issues, while experienced users should utilize the key word option for more inclusive results.
  • State and Local Action: This page allows the user to limit their search to policies, which includes state statutes, state administrative codes and regulation, and local ordinances. This section is searchable by menus organized by state, policy type, and key word. Multiple items can be selected and unselected in each menu by control/command-click.
  • Federal Action: This page has links to current federal actions and policies concerning community water fluoridation. It also includes updates from these federal agencies on proposed changes to current regulations and processes.

Key word searches can be utilized as follows:

  • Key Words - Simply entering words into the Key Word field will search FLUID for all instances of all words entered by the user.
  • "Key Words" - Using quotation marks around a phrase or set of words within the Key Word field will search FLUID for the exact phrasing entered within the quotations.
  • Key Word AND/OR Key Word - Using modifiers such as AND and OR between key words in the Key Word search field will search FLUID for either instances of both words (AND) or instances of one or the other words (OR).

Recent State and Local Action

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California :: Local Authority :: Stockton

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The City of Stockton does not fluoridate drinking water, and there are no plans to fluoridate in the future.  

For additional information about the source and quality of the City of Stockton water supply, please visit the Municipal Utilities Department web page, or, call (209) 937-7031.

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Texas:: Local Authority:: Corpus Christi

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Corpus Christi source water naturally contains about 0.3 to 0.4 parts per million and the City adds enough fluoride in our drinking water to amount to 0.7 parts per million.  The USEPA maximum contaminant level for fluoride is 4.0 parts per million.

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California:: Local Authority:: Santa Ana

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Beginning in October 2007, water that is received by the City of Santa Ana from MWD will have fluoride added to it. Our well water has a naturally occurring fluoride range level of 0.18 to 0.56 ppm. Water provided by MWD will have a fluoride level of 0.7 to 0.8 ppm. This plan was approved by the CDC and the California Department of Public Health. Additional information may be found by calling MWD’s Water Quality Information Hotline at 800-354-4420. You can also download a fact sheet at mwdh2o.com/fluoridation/ fluoridationfactsheet.pdf or visit ada.org/fluoride.aspx.

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Hawaii:: Local Authority:: Honolulu

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The Board of Water Supply, for the city of Honolulu, does not add fluoride to the municipal water supply.  

However, Federal regulations require that all military installations add both fluoride and chlorine to their water supplies regardless of water quality. 

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California :: Local Authority :: Anaheim

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Fluoride is a naturally occurring mineral found in drinking water and food. Many water agencies throughout the world add fluoride to public water systems to improve dental health.

Anaheim’s water contains between 0.3 to 0.4 parts per million (ppm) of naturally occurring fluoride. One ppm is roughly equivalent to one drop in 10 gallons. Anaheim does not fluoridate its water supply.

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